ReDCAD laboratory | ENIS | University of Sfax | My vCard
Research Laboratory on Development and Control of Distributed Applications



Currently, I am an associate professor at the National School of Engineers of Sfax. I did my engineering and graduate studies at Telecom ParisTech. From October 2005 to November 2008, I was a member of the S3 research team in the Network and Computer Science department of Telecom ParisTech.

My Academic Habilitation is titled "The Architectural Modeling in the Service of Real time, Distributed and Embedded Systems - Contributions to Dynamic Reconfiguration, Fault Tolerance, Optimization and Formal Verification", defended on May, 28th 2022.

My Phd thesis title is "Configuration and Deployment of Distributed Real-time Embedded Systems using an Architecture Description Language". My supervisors are Laurent Pautet and Jérôme Hugues. I defended my thesis in November 2008.

Here is a link to my Full Curriculum Vitae in french (Reduced version Here).


Office : DGIMA-01-05
Phone : (+216) 74 274 088 (Nbr 215)
Fax: (+216) 74 666 578
E-Mail: bechir.zalila(at)enis.tn, bechir.zalila(at)redcad.org
Address: Route de Soukra km 4, B.P. 1173, 3038, Sfax-Tunisia
Public OpenPGP Key short ID: 0x19EC77C8
Public OpenPGP Key Fingerprint: DDBA A8D1 642B BEE8 DC10 5B1E 5C5B 9407 19EC 77C8



Currently, my research activities are undertaken inside the ReDCAD research team.

A first research axis is a continuation of my thesis work. Some distributed real time embedded systems (DRE) need to be configured dynamically while continuing to preserve correctness properties. A first step of this work consists of defining a modeling formalism which is able to express dynamic configuration and deployment propoerties. This formalism is inspired from the MARTE UML profile and from the AADL (Architecture Analysis & Design Language). A second step of this work is to design and implement an execution platform for dynamically configurable DRE systems.

A second research axis I am working on is the generation of aspect code from abstract aspect annexes integrated in an architectural model for real time embedded systems. This allows the separation of concerns in such systems and also to ensure a smooth integration of some non functional propoerties such as security, availability, etc.

The two research axes described above can be joined together under the research thematics Models@Runtime. This relatively recent thematics investigates ways to model the execution state of distributed real time embedded systems. Any change on the execution state of a system have to be reflected on its model. Reversely, any change or alteration on a model will cause a corresponding alteration on the execution state of the system.


Building distributed real-time embedded systems (DRE) is a tedious task. In addition, real-time applications must satisfy hard constraints to ensure they work correctly (meeting deadlines...). The use of architecture description languages aims at reducing the development cost of these applications. AADL (Architecture Analysis & Design Language) belongs to this family of languages. It uses the concept of "component" (hardware or software) whose well defined semantics makes possible the description of many aspects of DRE systems. The various constraints that must be met are integrated into the AADL model as properties. My thesis work exploits the features offered by AADL to specify the exact requirements of a DRE application and automatically generate its code. The production process that has been proposed (1) automatically produces the code to integrate the applicative components to the runtime platform, (2) automatically produces a significant part of the middleware components customised for the application and (3) automatically deploys the applicative and middleware components to get a system which is strongly dedicated to the application. In particular, the AADL executive is itself statically configured. The adopted approach reduces the development time and allows for an customised and analyzable code. The configuration and deployment (often separated from the development process) are now automated and integrated into the production chain.

During my thesis work, I developed and contributed to the development of several tools:

Ocarina: Ocarina is a tool suite written in Ada to manipulate AADL models. Ocarina can perform semantic analysis of AADL models, schedulability analysis (through the Cheddar tool) and formal verification (by generating Petri nets from AADL models and analyzing them with the CPN-AMI framework). Ocarina can generate distributed applications from their AADL models. My contribution to Ocarina was the development of the code generators to the PolyORB and PolyORB-HI middleware.

PolyORB: PolyORB is a "schizophrenic middleware". My main contribution to PolyORB was the development of its new IDL compiler: IAC. PolyORB is free software available for download from the site of AdaCore.

PolyORB-HI: PolyORB-HI is a middleware dedicated to critical systems (avionics, space, etc.). Most of the code of this middleware is generated automatically using the Ocarina tool suite.

For more details on my thesis work, you can download my thesis report.





[1] Wafa Gabsi, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Extension and Adaptation of an Aspect Oriented Programming Language for Real-time Systems. International Journal of Business and Systems Research, 14(2):139--161, 2020. Ranked Q3 on Scopus and SJR. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[2] Hana Mkaouar, Bechir Zalila, Jérôme Hugues, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Towards a Formal Specification for an AADL Behavioural Subset Using the LNT Language. International Journal of Business and Systems Research, 14(2):162--190, 2020. Ranked Q3 on Scopus and SJR. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[3] Hana Mkaouar, Bechir Zalila, Jérôme Hugues, and Mohamed Jmaiel. A formal approach to AADL model-based software engineering. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 22(2):219--247, 2020. Ranked Q1 on Scopus and Q2 on SJR. IF=0.739. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[4] Rahma Bouaziz, Laurent Lemarchand, Frank Singhoff, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Multi-objective design exploration approach for ravenscar real-time systems. Real-Time Systems, 54(2):424--483, 2018. Ranked Q1 on Scopus and Q2 on SJR. IF=1.717. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[5] Wafa Gabsi, Bechir Zalila, and Jérôme Hugues. A development process for the design, implementation and code generation of fault tolerant reconfigurable real time systems. International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, 9(3/4):269--287, 2016. Ranked Q3 on Scopus and SJR. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[6] Fatma Krichen, Brahim Hamid, Bechir Zalila, Mohamed Jmaiel, and Bernard Coulette. Development of reconfigurable distributed embedded systems with a model-driven approach. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 27(6):1391--1411, 2015. Ranked Q2 on Scopus and SJR. IF=0.942. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[7] Sihem Loukil, Slim Kallel, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. AO4AADL: Aspect oriented extension for AADL. Central European Journal of Computer Science, 3(2):43--68, 2013. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[8] Jérôme Hugues, Bechir Zalila, Laurent Pautet, and Fabrice Kordon. From the Prototype to the Final Embedded System Using the Ocarina AADL Tool Suite. ACM Transactions in Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 7(4):1--25, 2008. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[9] Irfan Hamid, Bechir Zalila, Elie Najm, and Jérôme Hugues. Automatic framework generation for hard real-time applications. Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering: A NASA Journal, 4(1):107--122, 2008. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[10] Bechir Zalila, Jérôme Hugues, and Laurent Pautet. An Improved IDL Compiler for Optimizing CORBA Applications. ACM SIGAda Ada Letters, XXVI(3):21 -- 27, 2006. Best student paper award. [ BibTeX | DOI ]


[1] Hana Mkaouar, Bechir Zalila, Jérôme Hugues, and Mohamed Jmaiel. An ocarina extension for AADL formal semantics generation. In 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC), pages 1402--1409, Pau, France, apr 2018. ACM. Ranked B on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[2] Wafa Gabsi, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Development of a parser for the AADL error model annex. In 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS), pages 233--238. IEEE, may 2017. Ranked C on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[3] Rahma Bouaziz, Laurent Lemarchand, Frank Singhoff, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Efficient Parallel Multi-Objective Optimization for Real-time Systems Software Design Exploration. In 27th International Symposium on Rapid System Prototyping (RSP), pages 58--64, Pittsburgh, United States, oct 2016. ACM. Ranked C on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[4] Wafa Gabsi, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. AspectAda: An aspect oriented extension of ada for real-time systems. In 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS), pages 1--6, Okayama, Japan, jun 2016. IEEE. Ranked C on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[5] Wafa Gabsi, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Extension of the Ocarina Tool Suite to Support Reliable Replication-Based Fault-Tolerance. In 21st Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies (Ada-Europe), volume 9695 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 129--144, Pisa, Italy, may 2016. Springer. Ranked A on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[6] Wafa Gabsi, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. EMA2AOP: from the AADL error model annex to aspect language towards fault tolerant systems. In 14th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA), pages 155--162, Towson, MD, USA, jun 2016. IEEE. Ranked C on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[7] Rahma Bouaziz, Laurent Lemarchand, Frank Singhoff, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Architecture Exploration of Real-time Systems Based on Multi-Objective Optimization. In 20th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS), pages 1--10, Golden Coast, Australia, dec 2015. IEEE. Ranked A on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[8] Hana Mkaouar, Bechir Zalila, Jérôme Hugues, and Mohamed Jmaiel. From AADL Model to LNT Specification. In 20th International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies (Ada-Europe), volume 9111 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 146--161. Springer, jun 2015. Ranked A on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[9] Wafa Gabsi, Rahma Bouaziz, and Bechir Zalila. Towards an Aspect Oriented Language Compliant with Real Time Constraints. In 22nd IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), Third Track on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Service-oriented and Component-based Applications and Architectures (AROSA), pages 68--73, Hammamet, Tunisia, jun 2013. IEEE Computer Society. Ranked B on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[10] Wafa Gabsi and Bechir Zalila. Fault Tolerance for Distributed Real Time Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems from Modeling to Implementation. In 22nd IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), Third Track on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Service-oriented and Component-based Applications and Architectures (AROSA), pages 98--103, Hammamet, Tunisia, jun 2013. IEEE Computer Society. Ranked B on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[11] Fatma Krichen, Amal Gassara, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Towards a Verification Approach for Reconfigurable Embedded Systems. In IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), pages 750--752, Cappadocia, Turkey, july 2012. IEEE Computer Society. Ranked B on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[12] Fatma Krichen, Amal Ghorbel, Brahim Hamid, and Bechir Zalila. An MDE-Based Approach for Reconfigurable Embedded Systems. In 21st IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), Znd track on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Service-oriented and Component-based Applications and Architectures (AROSA), pages 78--83, Toulouse, France, jun 2012. IEEE Computer Society. Ranked B on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[13] Fatma Krichen, Brahim Hamid, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Design-Time Verification of Reconfigurable Real-time Embedded Systems. In 14th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communication, 9th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (HPCC-ICESS), pages 1487--1494, Liverpool, United Kingdom, jun 2012. IEEE. Ranked B on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[14] Fatma Krichen, Bechir Zalila, Mohamed Jmaiel, and Brahim Hamid. A Middleware for Reconfigurable Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems. In 10th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA), volume 430 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pages 81--96. Springer, jun 2012. Ranked C on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[15] Fatma Krichen, Amal Gassara, Bechir Zalila, Brahim Hamid, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Modélisation et vérification des systèmes embarqués temps réel reconfigurables. In 6ème Conférence Internationale Francophone sur les Architectures Logicielles, pages 1--8, Montpellier, France, may 2012. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[16] Fatma Krichen, Brahim Hamid, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Towards a Model-Based Approach for Reconfigurable DRE Systems. In 5th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), volume 6903 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 295--302, Essen, Germany, sep 2011. Springer. Ranked A on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[17] Sihem Loukil, Slim Kallel, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. Toward an Aspect Oriented ADL for Embedded Systems. In 4th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), volume 6285 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 489--492, Copenhagen, Denmark, august 2010. Springer. Ranked A on CORE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[18] Sihem Loukil, Slim Kallel, Bechir Zalila, and Mohamed Jmaiel. AO4AADL: an Aspect Oriented ADL for Embedded Systems. In 10th Annual International Conference on New Technologies of Distributed Systems (NOTERE), a Demonstration Paper, Tozeur, Tunisia, may 2010. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[19] Fatma Krichen, Brahim Hamid, Bechir Zalila, and Bernard Coulette. Designing Dynamic Reconfiguration for Distributed Real Time Embedded Systems. In 10th Annual International Conference on New Technologies of Distributed Systems (NOTERE), pages 249--254, Tozeur, Tunisia, may 2010. IEEE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[20] Gilles Lasnier, Bechir Zalila, Laurent Pautet, and Jérôme Hugues. OCARINA: An Environment for AADL Models Analysis and Automatic Code Generation for High Integrity Applications. In 14th Ada-Europe International Conference Reliable Software Technologies (Ada-Europe), volume 5570 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 237--250, Brest, France, jun 2009. Springer. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[21] Bechir Zalila, Laurent Pautet, and Jérôme Hugues. Towards Automatic Middleware Generation. In 11th International Symposium on Object-oriented Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC), pages 221--228, Orlando, Florida, USA, may 2008. IEEE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[22] Jérôme Hugues, Laurent Pautet, and Bechir Zalila. From MDD to Full Industrial Process: Building Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems for the High-Integrity Domain. In 13th Monterey Workshop on Composition of Embedded Systems, volume Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 35--52, Paris, France, jan 2008. Springer. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[23] Julien Delange, Jérôme Hugues, Laurent Pautet, and Bechir Zalila. Code Generation Strategies from AADL Architectural Descriptions Targeting the High Integrity Domain. In 4th European Congress on Embedded Real Time Soft-ware and Systems (ERTS), Toulouse, France, jan 2008. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[24] Jérôme Hugues, Laurent Pautet, Bechir Zalila, Pierre Dissaux, and Maxime Perrotin. Using AADL to build critical real-time systems:Experiments in the IST-ASSERT project. In 4th European Congress on Embedded Real Time Soft-ware and Systems (ERTS), Toulouse, France, jan 2008. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[25] Bechir Zalila, Irfan Hamid, Jérôme Hugues, and Laurent Pautet. Generating Distributed High Integrity Applications from their Architectural Description. In 12th International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies (Ada-Europe), volume Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 155--167, Geneva, Switzerland, jun 2007. Springer. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[26] Jérôme Hugues, Bechir Zalila, and Laurent Pautet. Combining Model processing and Middleware Configuration for Building Distributed High-Integrity Systems. In 10th IEEE International Symposium on Object-oriented Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC), pages 307--312, Santorini Island, Greece, may 2007. IEEE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[27] Jérôme Hugues, Bechir Zalila, Laurent Pautet, and Fabrice Kordon. Rapid Prototyping of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems Using the AADL and Ocarina. In 18th IEEE/IFIP International Workshop on Rapid System Prototyping (RSP), pages 106--112, Porto Allegre, Brazil, may 2007. IEEE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[28] Irfan Hamid, Bechir Zalila, Elie Najm, and Jérôme Hugues. A generative approach to building a framework for hard real-time applications. In 31st Annual NASA Goddard Software Engineering Workshop, pages 269--278, Baltimore, USA, mar 2007. IEEE. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[29] Jérôme Hugues, Bechir Zalila, and Laurent Pautet. Middleware and Tool suite for High Integrity Systems. In Work-in-Progress session of the Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS-WiP), pages 1--4, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, dec 2006. [ BibTeX | DOI ]


[1] Wafa Gabsi and Bechir Zalila. Towards a Model Level Replication Technique for Fault Tolerant Systems Using AADL. In Roger Lee, editor, Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Paral/Distributed Computing 2015, volume 612 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pages 159--175. Springer International Publishing, 2016. [ BibTeX | DOI ]
[2] Laurent Pautet and Bechir Zalila. Modélisation et analyse de systèmes embarqués, chapter Génération de code à partir du modèle. Hermes Science, 2013. [ BibTeX ]
[3] Laurent Pautet and Bechir Zalila. Embedded Systems: Analysis and Modeling with SysML, UML and AADL, chapter Model-Based Code Generation. Wiley-ISTE, 2013. [ BibTeX ]


[1] Bechir Zalila. Optimisation, Déterminisme et Asynchronisme de Souches et Squelettes CORBA pour Systèmes Répartis Temps-réel. Master's thesis, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris VI, sep 2005. [ BibTeX | PDF ]
[2] Bechir Zalila. Configuration et Déploiement d'Applications Temps-réel Réparties Embarquées à l'aide d'un Langage de Description d'Architecture. PhD thesis, École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, nov 2008. [ BibTeX | PDF ]
[3] Bechir Zalila. La Modélisation Architecturale au Service des Systèmes Temps réel Répartis Embarqués - Contributions à la Configuration Dynamique, la Tolérance aux Pannes, l'Optimisation et la Vérification Formelle. Habilitation universitaire, École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Sfax, mai 2022. [ BibTeX ]


[1] Jérôme Hugues and Bechir Zalila. PolyORB High Integrity User's Guide. Technical report, École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, jan 2007. [ BibTeX | HTML ]
[2] Thomas Vergnaud, Bechir Zalila, and Jérôme Hugues. Ocarina: a Compiler for the AADL. Technical report, École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, jun 2006. [ BibTeX | HTML ]


[1] Bechir Zalila. Configuration and Deployment of Distributed Real-time and Embedded Applications Using an Architecture Description Language, apr 2008. [ BibTeX | PDF ]


This poster describes the contributions of Sihem Loukil's master's thesis work. It was presented at the NOTERE'2010 conference held in June 2010 in Tozeur, Tunisia.

This poster describes one of the contributions of Fatma Krichen's phd thesis work. It was presented at the NOTERE'2010 conference held in June 2010 in Tozeur, Tunisia.

This poster describes the Ocarina tool suite. It was presented at the RTSS'06 in December 2006 in Rio de Janeiro.



Ada95 : A very good Ada 95 tutorial for those who want to learn Ada.


A simplified graphic library I developed. This library can be used in lab sessions of languages C and Ada for CS-1 and CS-2 students to make them more concrete. There are binary archives for most of the popular UNIX-Like platforms. If you are interested in the source code, do not hesitate to e-mail me.

The thesis style sheet I designed when writing my Phd thesis report.

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